Indexes and arrays: An introduction
Analytica's Intelligent Arrays are central to its power and convenience. They make it much easier and more flexible than spreadsheets and progamming languages to use and build models with multiple dimensions -- such as Time, geographic regioins, products, or scenarios. Even the Run index over random samples is just another dimension. You will find most aspects of Intelligent Arrays natural and intuitive. But you may find some aspects get a little getting used to, especially if you are a spreadsheet expert, or familiar with computer languages, like Visual Basic, R, and Python.
So, even if you usually ignore manuals, we encourage you to you look through this page. It introduces the key concepts of indexes and arrays with a simple example.
Create an index
An Index identifies a set of options, often used as a dimension of an Array. Suppose you want to compare the fuel cost of three different vehicles, each with different fuel efficiency. We start by defining an index
Car_type, which lists three different types of cars as text values. You create a new index, like any new variable, by dragging an index node from the node menu. Once you have created the new node, type in a title
Show its definition attribute in the Attribute pane below the diagram, and select List of Labels from the expr menu. Then type the car type the first care type as Standard. Press Enter to add the next cell. Type in Hybrid, and SUV (Sports Utility Vehicle) as two more cells. Now the Car_type is ready to use as an Index for tables, including Edit tables containing input values, and results wiht a value for each each Car type.
Create an edit table
Create a new variable by dragging it from the node menu, and typing a title
Miles per gallon. Draw an arrow from the index
Car type to the new node so that you can create a table with numbers for each Car type.
In the attribute panel above, we show the definition of
Miles_per_gallon, and select Table from the expr menu. This opens the Indexes dialog to let you choose which index(es) to use for the table dimensions.
It starts with
Car_type as the selected index because you drew the arrow from it (see Indexes dialog). Click OK to accept. An edit table appears, indexed by
Car_type, with cells initialized to 0.
You can now edit the cells of the table. Type in a number for each
This completes the edit table for Miles per gallon.
Combine a scalar and 1D array
Now let’s calculate the annual fuel cost for each car type. We create three new variables,
Fuel_cost and draw the arrows.
Type these definitions for the new variables:
Miles_per_year := 10K
Fuel_price := 3.00
Fuel_cost := Fuel_price * Miles_per_year / Miles_per_gallon
Fuel_cost and click the Result button to show this result table.
Array abstraction with operators +, -, *, /
This result for
Fuel_cost was computed using
Miles_per_gallon for each
Car_type, and the single a number,
Miles_per_year. The arithmetic operators * and / work when one or both operands are arrays, just as well as when they as when they are single number – also known as an atom or scalar . The same is true for +, -, and ^. This is an example of array abstraction, central to Intelligent Arrays™.
Define another edit table
Now let’s add in the maintenance costs. We create a new variable
Maintenance_cost, defined as an edit table, based on the
Car_type index, just as we did for
We now create
Operating_cost as the sum of
Maintenance_cost. The Diagram looks like this:
Maintenance_costare both 1D arrays indexed by
Car_type, their sum is also indexed by
Car_type. Each cell of the result is the simply the sum of the corresponding cells of each input variable:
Make an index as a sequence of numbers
Now let’s add another index,
Year, so that we can extend the model to compute the costs for multiple years. We create the new index as before. In its definition we enter
2008..2012, to specify the start and end year.
Compound annual growth of fuel price by year: What happens if
Fuel_price changes over time? Let’s model
Fuel_price starting with its current value of
3.00 ($/gallon) multiplied by a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of
8% per year:
Fuel_price_cagr := 8%
Fuel_price := 3.00 * (1 + Fuel_price_cagr)^(Year – 2008)
This expression says that
Fuel_Price starts at
Year 2008 (when the exponent (
Year - 2008) is zero. For each subsequent year, we raise
(1 + 8%) to the power of the number of years from the start year,
2008— i.e., standard compound growth. Here’s the result.
Combine two 1D arrays with different indexes
Now look at
Fuel_cost. Its has three inputs,
Miles_per_year, which is still a single number,
Miles_per_gallon, which is indexed by
Fuel_price, which is now indexed by
Year. The result is a two-dimensional table indexed by both
Year. It contains every combination of
Result has indexes of all operands
This illustrates a general rule for Intelligent Arrays: The result of an expression contains the union of the sets of indexes of the elements (operands).
Pivot a table, exchanging rows and columns: In the table above, it shows
Car_type down the rows and
Year across the columns. To pivot the table — i.e., exchange rows and columns — select the other index from the menu defining the columns (or the rows).
(We expanded the window size so that all rows are visible.)
Rows and columns are just for display of tables
Unlike other computer languages, with Analytica, you don’t need to worry about the ordering of the indexes in the table. Rows and columns are simply a question of how you choose to display the table. They are not intrinsic to the internal representation of an array.
Add a dimension to an edit table
Maintenance costs also changes over time, so we need to add
Year as dimension. Simply draw an arrow from
When it prompts “Do you wish to add Year as a new index of the table in Maintenance_cost?” click Repeat Values. Now open the edit table for
Maintenance_cost. It has added
Year as a second dimension, copying the number for each
Car_type across the years.
Notice that it shows the same values for each
Year, following the rule that a value is constant over a (previously) unused index. Now you can edit these numbers to reflect how maintenance cost increases over time.
Combine two 2D arrays with the same indexes
Let’s look at the value of
Since its inputs,
Maintenance_cost, are both indexed by
Year, the result is also indexed by those two indexes. Each cell contains the sum of the corresponding cells from the two input variables. The diagram now looks like this.
A list of numbers for parametric sensitivity analysis
Suppose you’re not sure how many miles you drive per year. You want to examine three scenarios. You include three values in
Miles_per_year by specifying a list of numbers enclosed in square brackets:
Miles_per_year := [5K, 10K, 15K]
Combine three 1D arrays with different indexes
Now all three inputs to
Fuel_cost are one-dimensional arrays, each with a different index. Its result is a three-dimensional table, computed for each combination of three input variables, so indexed by
Miles_per_year, as well as
The new third index,
Miles_per_year, appears as a slicer index, initially showing the slice for 5000 miles/year. You can click the down-arrow for a menu to choose another value, or click the diagonal arrows to step through the values for miles/year. See Index selection.
Pivot a 3D table
You can also pivot a table to display, for example, the
Car_type down the rows and
Miles_per_year across the columns, for a selected
Year in the slicer.
Combine 2D and 3D array with two common indexes
When we look at
Operating_cost again, it also now has three dimensions. Again the result has the union of the indexes of its operands.
It is the sum of fuel cost and maintenance cost, each of which is indexed by
Year as before, but now
Fuel_cost has the third index,
Miles_per_year. The result contains all three dimensions.
Propagate indexes automatically
Note how each time we add an index to an input variable, or change a variable, e.g.,
Miles_per_year, to be a list of values, the new dimensions automatically propagate through the downstream variables. The results have the desired dimensions (the union of the input dimensions) without any need to modify their definitions to mention those indexes explicitly.
Sum over an index
If we want to sum over
Year to get the total cost, we define a new variable:
Variable Total_operating_cost := Sum(Operating_cost, Year)
We mention the index
Year, over which we want to calculate the sum. But, we do not need to mention any of the other indexes of the parameter
The built-in function Sum(x, i) is called an array-reducing function, because it reduces its parameter «x» by one dimension, namely «i». There are a variety of other reducing functions, including Max](x, i), Min(x, i), and Product](x, i) (see Array-reducing functions). These functions explicitly specify the index over which they operate. Since they mention it by name, you don’t need to know or worry about any ordering of dimension in the array.
X[i = v]: subscript
The subscript construct lets you extract a slice or subarray from an array, say the values for the
Operating_cost[Car_type = 'Hybrid'] →
You can also select multiple subscripts in one expression:
Fuel_cost[year = 2012, Car_type = 'SUV', Miles_per_year = 10K] → 1775
You can list the indexes in any order since you identify them by name. Again you don’t need to remember which dimension is which. This is called name-based subscripting syntax, in contrast to the more conventional sequence-based subscripting. In addition to absolving you from having to remember the ordering, name-based subscripting generalizes flexibly as you add or remove dimensions of the model.
Subscripting by an array
The value «v» in x[i = v] can itself be an array. For example, if you wanted to get the operating cost only for even years:
Operating_cost[Miles_per_year = 10K, Year = [2008, 2010, 2012]]
Purchase price and depreciation
To complete the model, let’s add the
Purchase_price, an edit table indexed by
Car_type (just as we created
To annualize this, we compute the annual depreciation, using a depreciation rate of 18% per year— typical for an automobile:
Variable Depreciation_rate := 18%
Variable Annual_depreciation := Purchase_price*Depreciation_rate*(1 - Depreciation_rate)^(Year - 2008)
It calculates this formula for each
(1 - Depreciation_rate) to the power of the number of years from 2008.
IF THEN ELSE with arrays
Suppose that there is a government rebate of $2000 when you purchase a hybrid. You could create an edit table by
-$2000 for Hybrid in 2008 and
$0 in all other cells. (The rebate is negative because we are treating the numbers as costs.) A more elegant method is to define it as a conditional expression based on
Variable Hybrid_rebate := IF Year = 2008 AND Car_type = 'Hybrid THEN -2000 ELSE 0
It calculates the expression for each value of the indexes, in this case
Car_type, with this result.
Year = 2008 returns an array indexed by
Year containing 1 (true) for 2008 and 0 (false) for the other years. Subexpression
Car_type = 'Hybrid' returns an array indexed by
Car_type, containing 1 (true) for
'Hybrid' and 0 (False) for the other
Car_type. Therefore, the expression
Year = 2008 AND Car_type = 'Hybrid' returns an array indexed by both
Car_type, containing 1 (true) only when both subexpressions are true, that is 1 for Hybrid in 2008 and 0 for the other cells. The entire
IF expression therefore returns -2000 for the corresponding top-left cell and 0 for the others.
Compare a list of variables
To summarize the results, it is useful to compare the four types of cost,
Hybrid_rebate, in one table. Let’s make a variable
Cost_summary, and first define it as an empty list, i.e., square brackets with nothing between them yet:
Variable Cost_summary := 
Now draw an arrow from each of the four variables you want to view to
Cost_summary, in the sequence you want them to appear. Each time you draw an arrow into a variable defined as a list, it automatically adds that variable into the list. (If the origin variable was already in the list, it removes it again.) Here is the diagram showing the resulting definition for
The resulting definition is a list of variables. The result for
Cost_summary is four-dimensional, adding a new index, also labeled
Cost_summary, showing the variables in the list.
Constant value over an index not in array
Note that only
Fuel_cost depends on
Miles_per_year. The other three quantities, Maintenance cost, Annual depreciation, and Hybrid rebate, are expanded over that index in the table, using the same number for each value of
Miles_per_year. This is an example of a general principle:
- An array that does not contain index «i» as a dimension is treated as though it has the same value over each element of «i» when there is a need to expand it to include «i» as a dimension.
Totals in a table: To see the total over the costs and over the
Years, check the two
Totals boxes next to the row and column menus.
The new index containing the titles of the four cost variables in the list is also called
Cost_summary. Thus, the identifier
Cost_summary serves double-duty as an index for itself. This is known as a self index, and can be accessed using the IndexValue() function.
If we want to compute the sum of the four costs, we can use Sum(x, i) to sum array «x» over index «i». In this case, we sum
Cost_summary over its self index, also
Variable Total_cost_by_year := Sum(Cost_summary, Cost_summary)
We also want to compute the average cost per mile over all the years. First we compute total cost over time, using the Sum() function:
Variable Total_cost := Sum(Cost_summary, Year)
As before, we need to specify the index over which we are summing,
Year, but we don’t need to mention any other indexes, such as
Miles_per_year, which are irrelevant to this summation.
Next we calculate the
Variable Total_miles := Sum(Miles_per_year, Year)
Miles_per_year is not indexed by
Year. The principle of Constant value over unused indexes implies that
Miles_per_year has the same value for each
Year. Hence, the result is the miles per year multiplied the number of years, in this case 5.
Finally, we define:
Variable Cost_per_mile := Total_cost/Total_miles
Add a new item to an index
What if you want to extend this model to include Compact as a fourth
Car_type? Open one of the edit tables indexed by
Miles_per_gallon. Click the last
Car_type, SUV, to select that row (or column), and press Enter or the down-arrow key. It says “Changing the size of this index will affect table definitions of other variables. Change data in tables indexed by Car_Type?” This warns that adding a new
Car_type will affect all the edit tables indexed by
Car_type. Click OK, and it adds a new bottom row, with the same label SUV as the previous bot- tom row, and with value 0. Double-click the index label in this bottom row, and type the new
Car_type, Compact, to replace it. Then enter its value, say 30 (miles/gallon).
Expanding index for other edit tables
Now open the edit table for
Maintenance_cost, and you will see a new row for Compact already added, initialized to 0 in each cell. You just need to enter numbers for
Maintenance_cost for the Compact car, as shown here.
Next enter numbers for the
Maintenance_cost for the Compact car. Then enter a purchase price for the Compact car.
Automatic propagation of changes to index
Now you’ve entered the data for Compact Car_type into the three edit tables, you’re done. All the computed tables automatically inherit the expanded index and do the right thing — without you needing to make any change to their definitions. For example,
Cost_summary now looks like this.
Finally, let’s compute the net present value cost as the objective, using the reducing function Npv(discount, x, i). We define:
Variable Discount_rate := 12%
Objective NPV_cost := NPV(Discount_rate, Total_cost_by_year, year)
Here is the final diagram, showing NPV_Cost.
Monte Carlo sampling and Intelligent Arrays
Almost any variable in Analytica can be uncertain — that is, probabilistic. Each probabilistic quantity is represented by a random sample of values, generated using Monte Carlo (or Latin hyper- cube) simulation. Each random sample is an array indexed by a special system variable Run. The value of Run is a sequence of integers from 1 to
Sample_size, a system variable specifying the sample size for simulation. For most operations and functions, Run is just another index, and so is handled just like other indexes by the Intelligent Arrays. You can see it when you choose the Sample uncertainty view. In other uncertainty views, such as Mean or CDF, the values displayed are computed from the underlying sample. See Uncertainty views.
As we developed this simple model, we refined it by adding indexes progressively. First, we defined
Year, and finally we changed
Miles_per_year from a single value to a list of values for parametric analysis. Creating
Cost_summary added a fourth index, consisting of the four cost categories. It is often a good idea to build a model like this — starting with a simple version of a model with no or few indexes, and then extending or disaggregating it by adding indexes — and also sometimes removing indexes if they don’t seem important.
This approach to development is sometimes called progressive refinement. By starting simple, you get something working quickly. Then you expand it in steps, adding refinements where they seem to be most useful in improving the representation. A more conventional approach, trying to implement the full detail from the start, risks finding that it’s just too complicated, so it takes a long time to get anything that works. Or, you might find that some of the details are excessive — they just weren’t worth the effort.
Progressive refinement is a much easier in Analytica than in a spreadsheet and most other computer languages — where extending or adding a dimension requires major surgery to the model to add subscripting and loops. With Intelligent Arrays, to extend or add an index, you only need to change edit tables or definitions that actually do something with the new index. The vast majority of formulas generalize appropriately to handle a modified or new dimension without needing any changes.
Summary of Intelligent Arrays and array abstraction
Intelligent Arrays make it easy to extend and add dimensions (indexes) in Analytica. If you find yourself using a lot of subscripts and explicit iteration with For loops), you might be fighting against Intelligent Arrays rather than letting them do the work for you. Adding unnecessary iteration makes your models harder to write, understand, and maintain. They'll be less robust and will ake much longer to compute than if you let Analytica do its thing. Take the time to understand them, and you should find that you can greatly simplify your model.
In a spreadsheet, extending a dimension means you have (at least) to go through every table that uses that dimension and stretch the cells over the extended rows or columns. It's easy to make mistakes. Adding a dimension is hard work, especially after the first two dimensions. With languages like R or Python, you can easily extend a dimension with new elements, but takes a lot more effort to add a new dimension. Typically, you have to add a loop over the new index and a subscripts to every array variable for every operation. The broadcasting technique in Python libraries can help a bit -- but even there you have to remember the sequencing of indexes, "inner" or "outer", and code carefully to make it all work. In Analytica, each dimension is identified by an Index variable, enabling Analytica to do what you want without you having to even mention the dimensions in most operations, like arithmetic operations, comparisons, and so on.
Almost every operator, construct, and function in Analytica supports array abstraction, automatically generalizing as you add or remove dimensions to their operands or parameters. (See Ensuring Array Abstraction for the few exceptions and how to handle them if you want to make sure that your model fully supports this array abstraction.)
General principles of Intelligent Arrays™
- Omit irrelevant indexes: An expression need not mention any index that it does not explicitly operate over.
- A value is constant over unused index: Any function or expression that operates over an Index «i» on a value «x» (atom or array), which does not have «i» as a index, treats «x» as constant over «i» -- i.e. as if it had the same value «x» for each value of «i».
- Rows and columns are features of displayed tables, not arrays: You can choose which index to show down the rows or across the columns, or as a slicer dimension. You (almost) never need to think about about the order in which indexes are used in an array.
- The indexes of the result of an expression contain the union of the indexes of its component arrays: The result of an operation or expression contains the union of the indexes of any arrays that it uses — that is, all indexes from the arrays, without duplicating any index that is in more than one array. There are two unsurprising exceptions:
- To be more precise, we can define the behavior of Intelligent Arrays thus: For any expression or function F(x) that takes a parameter or operand «x» that is an array indexed by «i», for any element «k» of index «i»:
F(x[i = k]) = F(x)[i = k]
- In other words, you get the same result if you select element «k» of index «i» of array «x» and then apply F() as if you first apply F() to array «x» and then select element «k» of index «i» of the result. This turns out to be an extremely powerful principle. It underlies Analytica's array abstraction which lets you define expressions on arrays without needing to do explicit iteration over each index as you would need in conventional computer languages.
Exceptions to array abstraction
The vast majority of operators, constructs, and functions fully support Intelligent Arrays — that is, they generalize appropriately when their operands or parameters are arrays. A few do not, notably the sequence operator (..), Sequence() function, and While loop. When you use these, you need to take special care to ensure that your models perform array abstraction conveniently when you add or modify dimensions. For how, seeEnsuring Array Abstraction.
- Tutorial: Arrays
- Multidimensional array
- Array Function Example Variables
- Array Manipulation Examples and Challenge Problems
- Intelligent Arrays
- Intelligent Array Abstraction (an explanatory video on YouTube)
- Intro-to-arrays (Part 1).wmv (an explanatory video about Analytica arrays and indexes (part 1); requires Windows Media player)
- Intro-to-arrays (Part 2).wmv (an explanatory video about Analytica arrays and indexes (part 2); requires Windows Media player)
- Tutorial: Viewing the results of a multi-dimensional array
- Ensuring Array Abstraction
- Local Indexes
- Implicit Dimensions
- Modeling Depreciation
- Parametric analysis
- Arrays in Optimization Models and Array Abstraction